Fertilization is a very critical task in the planting process of fruit trees. The correct fertilization method can improve the yield and fruit quality of fruit trees. Today we will take a look at how to fertilize fruit trees? What are the misunderstandings of fruit tree fertilization?
How should fruit trees be fertilized?
1. Fertilization should be suitable for the distance from the tree
The distribution of fruit tree roots is very wide. Generally, the distribution of horizontal roots of fruit trees is 2 to 4 times the diameter of the crown. Practice has proved that the distance from the trunk of apples, pears, peaches, apricots and other fruit trees to ditching or digging holes is appropriate at the outer edge of the vertical projection of the canopy, with a depth of 30-40 cm, where the absorption roots of the fruit trees are concentrated and the nutrient utilization rate is high. .
2. The amount of fertilization depends on the tree, the place and the fertilizer
Regardless of whether it is basal fertilizer, late-acting fertilizer or sex fertilizer, the general principles for determining the amount of fertilizer are: young trees are lower than mature trees; trees that do not bear fruit or the early fruiting stage is lower than the fruit-bearing tree; the fertility is poor There should be more gardens than more fertile ones. When applying base fertilizer in autumn, the amount of stable manure applied is generally not less than 5000 kg per mu, of which high-quality chicken manure should not exceed 4000 kg. Long-acting all-element compound fertilizer, micro-fertilizer, etc. should be mixed in the base fertilizer. Urea, phosphoric acid Chemical fertilizers such as diammonium and potassium sulfate should be applied in stages according to the different growth and development stages of fruit trees. Formulated fertilization is recommended where conditions permit.
Three, the fertilization period is determined by the tree
The fertilization period should be determined according to the different growth and development stages, tree species, varieties and other factors of the fruit trees. When there is a conflict between busy farming and labor, fertilization must be paid to hire people, and it should not affect the nutritional requirements of the tree. The basal fertilizer for deciduous fruit trees is generally suitable to be applied after or before the fruit is picked. Many fruit growers apply base fertilizer before freezing or after thawing in spring, which is very unscientific. Practice has proved that applying basal fertilizer after fruit harvesting or at the late stage of fruit ripening is of great significance for improving the photosynthetic function of fruit tree leaves, improving fruit quality and tree nutrient storage level, and enhancing tree body's resistance to stress. Missing the application of basal fertilizer during this period will not only lead to poor results, but also adverse effects. In addition, when the tree is weak, it can be applied in advance; when the tree is strong, the application can be delayed; tree species and varieties with early deciduous leaves can be applied in advance.
Fourth, the determination of the type of fertilization
The types of fertilization are generally determined according to factors such as the characteristics of the fertilizer requirements of the fruit trees and the types of fertilizers. Fruit trees need not only nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macronutrient fertilizers, but also trace element fertilizers such as boron, iron, zinc, and copper. These nutrients come from organic fertilizers such as farm manure, crop stalks, cake fertilizer, chicken manure, and urea. , Diammonium phosphate, potassium sulfate, various compound fertilizers and other chemical fertilizers. The combination of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, and the combined application of macro-element fertilizers and micro-element fertilizers can meet the growth and development needs of different fruit trees at different stages. Overcome the practice of emphasizing nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, neglecting potash fertilizer and ignoring organic fertilizer and micro-fertilizer in production. Combination of underground fertilization and above-ground fertilization
Underground fertilization is the main channel of fertilization. However, due to the easy fixation of certain nutrients in the soil, the utilization rate of fertilizers is reduced. Above-ground fertilization, namely foliar spraying, is directly sprayed on the tree body, which saves money and labor and absorbs nutrients. The advantages of fast speed and high utilization rate are especially effective for physiological diseases such as yellow leaf disease caused by iron deficiency, fruit shrink disease caused by boron deficiency, small leaf disease caused by zinc deficiency, and early leaf fall disease caused by reduced leaf function. Therefore, we must pay attention to above-ground fertilization and combine underground fertilization with above-ground fertilization.
Misunderstanding of fruit tree fertilization:
Misunderstanding 1: The fertilization point is as close as possible to the tree.
Many fruit farmers believe that fertilization is far away from the tree, the root absorption is poor, and the nutrient cannot be utilized. Therefore, the fertilization is very close to the tree, some are less than half a meter from the root neck, and even the backbone roots are dug out. It often happens, and the effect is often counterproductive.
Misunderstanding 2: The more fertilizer, the better.
Some fruit farmers do not comprehensively determine the amount of fertilization based on the type of fertilizer, the strength of the tree, the size of the tree, the amount of yield, and the conditions of soil fertility, but blindly believe that the more fertilization, the better. As a result, the nutrient supply and demand of the tree is unbalanced. In severe cases, the tree burns roots and kills the tree, and disease and insects multiply.
Misunderstanding 3: The fertilization time is based on busyness.
Some fruit farmers do not fertilize according to the period when fruit trees need fertilization, but fertilize according to their busy schedule. "When the tree needs fertilizer, there is no time to fertilize, and people do not need to fertilize the tree." What should be fertilized in spring becomes fertilized in summer, and fertilized in autumn. It becomes winter fertilization. The pre-flowering fertilizer that should have been applied becomes post-flowering fertilizer, and the post-flowering fertilizer becomes post-fruit fertilizer. The fertilizer requirement period for fruit trees is missed, and the effect of increasing production is greatly reduced.
Misunderstanding 4: The type of fertilization is arbitrary.
The application of basal fertilizer in autumn in orchards just conflicts with the fertilization in autumn in wheat fields. Many fruit farmers use chemical fertilizers instead of basal fertilizers, or use unripe crop stalks instead of manure and other farmhouse manures. The yield decreases and the fruit quality deteriorates.
Misunderstanding 5: Prioritize fertilization underground.
Many fruit farmers are accustomed to underground fertilization, and they underestimate or understand the effect of above-ground fertilization, that is, foliar spraying, leading to serious physiological diseases such as yellow leaf disease, small leaf disease, fruit shrinking disease, early leaf falling disease, and reduced leaf photosynthetic function.