What is the role of chemical fertilizers? How to use chemical fertilizers scientifically?
Chemical fertilizers have high nutrient content, low dosage per unit area, convenient transportation, easy application, good yield-increasing effect, fast fertilizer efficiency, and can be quickly absorbed and utilized after being applied to the soil.
However, its nutrient types are single, nutrient concentration is high, and solubility is high. If direct contact with seeds or roots, it is easy to cause burning seeds, burning seedlings, improper application methods, and fertilizer damage. Care must be taken when applying and scientific methods must be followed.
What is the role of fertilizer
1. Increase crop yield
my country's chemical fertilizer fertilization technology has reached a certain level. Not only has the people's food and clothing problems been solved, but the people's living standards have also been greatly improved.
2. Improve soil fertility
As a result of reasonable fertilization for many years, the after-effects of chemical fertilizers will be superimposed, and the effective nutrient content of the soil will increase, which will promote the continuous improvement of crop yields. Not only can the fertility of the cultivated land be maintained, but also the more fertilizer will be planted.
3. Exploit the potential of improved varieties
For a variety of crops, whether high-yield or low-yield, each grain that forms a unit yield must absorb basically the same composition and quantity of nutrient elements from the soil environment. In essence, high-yield varieties are varieties that can absorb and utilize more nutrients and convert them into grain yields.
4. Development of the material basis for cash crops, forests and grasslands
The birth and application of chemical fertilizers have increased grain production and income, and economic crops have also developed significantly. The abundance of food and a variety of agricultural products is also conducive to the promotion of returning farmland to forests and grasses, and also provides a reliable material basis for macro-control of soil erosion, wind and sand fixation, etc., to protect and improve the ecological environment.
How to use chemical fertilizers scientifically
1. It is not advisable to water immediately after urea is applied: After urea is applied to the soil, it will quickly be converted into ammonium amide, which is easy to lose with water. Therefore, it is not advisable to water immediately after application, and do not apply before heavy rain. Urea can be used as an extra-root topdressing, which can effectively prevent premature senescence of plants due to nitrogen deficiency in the middle and late stages of crops, but care should be taken to avoid fertilizer damage and burning seedlings. Urea should also be avoided as seed fertilizer.
2. Phosphate fertilizers are not suitable for scattered application: phosphate fertilizers are difficult to be absorbed by crops because of their low activity. Therefore, when phosphate fertilizer is applied, it should be used as a base fertilizer, and applied more concentratedly in the sowing furrow or nest, and mixed with organic slag fertilizer for a period of time before applying it.
3. Potassium fertilizer should not be applied in the later stage of crop growth: due to the potassium element in the lower stems and leaves of the crops, it can be transferred to the top delicate part for reuse. Therefore, potassium fertilizer should be applied in advance at the seedling stage of the crop or in the early stage of reproductive growth, or applied as a base fertilizer at a time.
4. Ammonium bicarbonate should be applied deeply: because ammonium bicarbonate is very unstable, it is easy to decompose into ammonia and volatilize, and the higher the temperature, the greater the volatilization loss, so it is not suitable for use in greenhouses, nor can it be sprayed on topsoil , Ditch or acupoint application should be carried out.
5. Avoid long-term use of ammonium sulfate: Ammonium sulfate is a physiologically acidic fertilizer. Long-term application of ammonium sulfate in the ground will increase the acidity of the soil, destroy the soil aggregate structure, compact the soil and reduce physical and chemical properties, which is not conducive to fertility cultivation.
6. Do not use chlorinated fertilizers on saline-alkali soil and chlorine-free crops: ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and other chlorinated fertilizers are applied to the soil and decomposed over time, which will cause soil acidification. Using them on saline-alkali soils will aggravate salt damage. Applying chlorinated fertilizers to chlorine-free crops such as potatoes, watermelons, grapes, etc., can reduce the starch and sugar content of the products, and affect the yield and quality of the products.
7. Do not apply nitrate nitrogen fertilizers in rice fields and vegetable fields: nitrate nitrogen fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate are prone to denitrification and loss of nitrogen after being applied to rice fields. After nitrate nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the vegetable field, it will double the nitrate content of the vegetable, and can be reduced to nitrite in the human body, which is extremely harmful to the human body.