What is humic acid? The role and usage of humic acid.
Practice has proved that in the process of agricultural soil pollution control and soil improvement, humic acid has shown better and better results. So, what is humic acid and why does fulvic acid repair the soil?
What is humic acid?
Humic acid is a macromolecular organic substance widely present in nature.
Humic acid is the remains of animals and plants, mainly the remains of plants. It is a class of organic substances caused and accumulated by the decomposition and transformation of microorganisms and a series of geochemical processes. Some fermentation processes in modern industry can also produce humic acid.
The source of humic acid raw materials can be divided into two categories: coal-based substances and non-coal-based substances.
The former mainly includes peat, lignite and weathered coal; among them, the humic acid content reaches 10-80%. my country's coal reserves are very rich. According to the data, there are 5 billion tons of peat and 126.5 billion tons of lignite. There is no statistical data on weathered coal.
The latter includes soil, water, fungi and other non-coal substances, such as phenols, quinones, sugars and other substances, which can produce humic acids through biological fermentation, oxidation or synthesis, such as the production of MSG by grain fermentation on the market Humic acid produced.
Humic acid is the main component of humus. Its chemical structure is complex. It is a mixture containing a variety of active functional groups such as carboxyl group, phenol group, ketone group, and phenolic hydroxyl group. The special structure and physical and chemical characteristics of humic acid determine its ecological restoration. Important role.
1. Stimulate growth
Humic acid contains physiologically active substances, which have a stimulating effect on the growth and development of crops and physiological metabolism in the body. Inorganic fertilizers do not have this characteristic. The humic acid in humic acid is water-soluble. It has a special promotion effect on the root development of crops. It has fast rooting, more secondary roots, increased root volume and root elongation, which increases the ability of crops to absorb water and nutrients. .
2. Improve fertilizer efficiency
After the application of humic acid, the active group can combine with nitrogen to reduce the volatilization of nitrogen fertilizer and prolong the fertilizer effect; it can complex or chelate with iron and aluminum to reduce the phosphorus fixation caused by the formation of iron phosphate and aluminum and increase the movement of phosphorus Distance, stimulate rooting; combine with potassium, reduce the lattice fixation of potassium, increase the amount of available potassium, promote the coloration of swollen fruits, and improve fruit quality. Thereby improving fertilizer utilization.
3. Improve crop resistance to stress
The high content of soil organic matter provides a good living environment for beneficial microorganisms. The beneficial flora gradually develops into a dominant flora to inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. In addition, the plant itself grows robustly due to the excellent soil conditions, and the disease resistance ability is enhanced. Will significantly reduce disease. .
4. Improve quality
Application of humic acid can increase the sugar content of apples, grapes, strawberries, etc., increase the content of starch, protein, vitamin C, reduce the content of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables and fruits, thereby improving the quality of fruits.
5. Improve soil
Humic acid organic colloids combine with calcium ions in the soil to form a flocculent gel, which can bind the soil particles, increase the water-stable aggregate structure in the soil, and coordinate the water, fertilizer, gas and heat conditions of the soil to retain water and fertilizer Increased properties, especially for improving thin soils that are too sticky or too sandy.
Usage of Humic Acid Fertilizer
1. Seed soaking: Seed soaking can improve the germination rate of seeds, emerge early, and enhance the ability of seedlings to take root. The general seed soaking concentration is 0.005-0.05%, the general seed soaking time is 5-10 hours, and the hard shell seeds such as rice and cotton are 24 hours.
2. Root soaking: Rice, sweet potato, etc. can be used to soak seedlings with sodium humate or potassium humate solution before transplanting, with a concentration of 0.01-0.05%. After soaking, it showed fast rooting and high survival rate.
3. Spraying: The general concentration is 0.01-0.05% solution, which is sprayed 2-3 times during the flowering period of the crop, each spray volume is 50 liters of water solution per acre, and the spraying time should be selected at 2-4 pm.
4. Base fertilizer: solid humic acid fertilizer (such as ammonium humate, etc.), generally 100-150 kg per 6 mu. When the humic acid solution is applied as a base fertilizer, the concentration is 0.05-0.1%, and the amount of 250-400 liters of water solution per 6 acres can be mixed with farm fertilizer and applied, either furrow application or hole application.
5. Top dressing: Before the seedling stage and heading stage of the crop, use 250-liter water with a concentration of 0.01-0.1% for every 6 acres and irrigate near the root of the crop. The paddy field can be applied with irrigation or splashing on the water surface, which can play the role of raising seedlings, strengthening seedlings, promoting growth and development.